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Poda Girona

The hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) in Catalonia

This year we have planted 11 European hornbeams in the streets of Olot, Catalonia.


planting of hornbeam as street tree in Olot, Catalonia


After an initially good start, we saw the newly planted trees suffer during the extremely hot and dry summer. The trees showed different signs of stress in midsummer (wilting of leafs and leaf loss), which are of course not uncommon for freshly planted trees.


leafs are wilting and turning brown in june


The young trees haven’t had time to develop a proper root system after they have been taken out of the field in the nursery. Which makes it difficult for them to absorb enough water to sustain the leafs in the tree crown.


primary roots have been cut in nursery to create rootball


But it was not until we had seen the hornbeam in its natural habitat in Eastern Europe forests before we started to ask ourselves the question:

Is the hornbeam a suitable tree for the landscape in Catalonia?


hornbeam in Poland


In order to answer this question we made a small study of its natural habitat and its preferences and compared this parameters to the situation in Catalonia.


The hornbeam is native to central, eastern, and southern Europe, including southern England. It can also be found in Western Asia (source Wikipedia).


map of the distribution in Europe (wikipedia)


The map shows us that the hornbeam is not native in Spain, although it is in some countries nearby such as France and Italy. However the (small orange triangle)    in Catalonia means that the tree has been introduced and naturalized in this area.

Natural habit

The hornbeam prefers growing in a shade place with a moderate soil fertility and also moderate moisture. It likes growing in forests of oak and beech trees and is often found near the borders of the forests. It is also common in wet areas near rivers (source wikepedia, árboles de Europa, Margot y Roland Spohn)

Most street trees have a lot of sun hours in Catalonia, due to the high sun elevation angle. During summer days there isn’t much shade for normal street trees. The soil fertility strongly varies in the different areas of Catalonia, however the fertility of the soil within a city is normally poor. Not only do the trees in cities have little soil available, but there also hardly isn’t any organic layer in the soil. The moisture level of the soil is low during summer. During hot periods in Catalonia the soil can even completely dry out.


All together the conditions in Catalonia don’t seem to be favourable for the hornbeam. Some parameters can be improved, such as the soil fertility and the humidity by adding fertilizers or installing a water system. It also possible to plant the hornbeam in the shade of a high building, bridge or other high trees.

Before planting the hornbeam it is recommendable to improve the soil condition by adding organic material. After the planting it is important to provide enough water until the roots are developed. We are going to continue monitoring the development of the planted Hornbeams in Olot and next year we can hopefully dedicate an new post to them.

What is your experience with the hornbeam? Please let us know by writing a comment.



leafs of the hornbeam


this blog is an adaption from:


Rich Rule

It is an exciting time for tree climbers.  Equipment and techniques are developing to not only promote safe working practices but to allow you to work smarter and not harder.  The working life expectancy of a climber can be prolonged with hopefully less wear and tear being picked up on the way.


One such development in Arb climbing is the use of SRT climbing systems.  SRT has been used for a number of years for canopy access, borrowing ideas and kit from rock climbing, caving etc. Traditional ascenders have always been great a capturing progress but have lacked the ability to descend should the need arise.


In the last few years people have gone out on a limb like Morgan Thompson with his Unicender, Kevin Bingham with the Rope Wrench and then the Rope Runner, to develop tools that capture ascent but can be used to descend aswell.  


Another such pioneer in SRT Work positioning is Gordon Svedberg AKA Surveyor on forums such as The Buzz, Treehouse and Arbtalk.  After producing hybrid devices such as the OAR, Gordon came up with the idea of the Compact Bulldog Bone.


Having had the idea and developed prototypes, Gordon put out his design to a number of local arbs for testing and feedback via the Treebuzz internet forum in August 2014.  This not only proved to be a great method of getting the Bone out there, but provided a valuable source of information and feedback from the users to the developer.  Gordon took on board the feedback and over the next few months tried to incorporate the likes and dislikes he had received by tweaking the design of the Bone to allow for different users desires and rope types.  The main aims being to develop one device to allow the climber to seemlessly ascend and descend and be mid-line attachable with no droppable parts.  The Bone goes on the rope in seconds and can be removed in the same time frame.     The Bone is made of simple parts that are easy to replace.


The result of this is a Mechanical Ascender/descender, that is easy to modify and tune to your exact requirements.  Although being mechanical, it operates with a very hitch like feel.


For more information on the development process and the history of the device, pull up a chair, grab and drink and a 'sammich' and log onto


Gordon ships the BDB after having received a signed disclaimer and payment for the product and postage.  The BDB ships with instructions and 3 different sized bollards to be used on the top arm to control friction for ropes of different diameter.


I received my BDB in January after reading the hype on various internet forums.  I was not disappointed.  First impression were of a solid, robust (read bombproof) piece of kit that I couldn't wait to use.  After reading about the various modifications and development I already felt like I knew exactly how it would respond.  After a couple of goes low and slow, I tried the BDB on my favourite rope, Cougar Blue with the 5/8th bollard.  It responded very much like a hitch but I felt it needed a bit of time to bed in, or I needed to get used to it at least.  The first 4 or 5 climbs I had on the BDB were in the rain, I was crying for a dry day.  Even in the rain, once the ascent was dialled in with a HAAS and pantin, the BDB ate the rope for lunch.  Desending was a bit of an on off affair till you get used to it.  


After a particular wet day, working over a goose enclosure my rope needed a wash...  WOW!  What a difference that made.  The BDB literally tends slack so easily you can clip into a neck tether or chest harness and freeclimb the tree and it takes it all in with minimum sitback.  My BDB self tends with approx 20 foot of line below me.  Same deal with spikes, either spike the tree and it will tend depending on the rope angle or clip into a pantin or spikecender and up you go.


The more I have used this device the more I am growing to love it.  There has been some initial wear on the spine as the ropes and device get to know each other, but nothing to worry about at this stage.  One of the main selling points of this device is how easy it is to set it on the rope.  Everything is connected so there is no worry of dropping any parts.  It is a case of threading the rope into the arms, bending the rope and sliding a link over the rope and locking clasp.  This is just as easy to remove, just in reverse, making change overs or redirects less of a challenge and reducing the risk of getting your climbing device jammed in a fork.  As mentioned, there are various modifications  you can do to personalise your Bone.  The only thing I have done is adjust the tending point from the spine to the top arm.  In doing so, the top arm releases allowing the rope to flow even smoother through it without compromising safety.


There are a few vids and reviews of the BDB on youtube. 


For more information on the Compact Bulldog Bone, please read the Arbtalk thread posted above.  If you want to contact Gordon directly to order or simply query his design then his email is gordonandkathy@aol.com  


Richard Rule

Freelance Climber


 I don't have a garden, or not much of one, and anyway, what there is has no road frontage whatsoever.


However, some friends run a tearooms and keep chickens at a place not too far away that is situated on a country lane that is often used as a 'rat run' to get to a nearby city rather than use the often clogged main route. Over the winter they noticed that a large Leylandii between their car park and the road was showing signs of lifting the car park in strong winds, so it had to come down as sooner or later it was going to fall on a nearby building!


I carve normally in the yard of a tree surgeon who has a house in our village that has a tall carving in the garden and many customers come into the yard and mention that they have seen it and all comments are complimentary, but of course, I have to admit that it is not my carving and the credit must go to the tree surgeon. ( although I have done some maintenance on it) ;) 


Long story short, I got my tree surgeon pal to cut the tree down to a height that I marked on it and volunteered to carve the trunk(s). My friends at the tea room had only one request, that whatever I carved had to be 'Fun'.  I've done a number of 'on site' carvings, but always to a brief set by the clients. This one is so much different, as I have a complete free rein to do whatever I like, as long as it is fun.


I am carving this in what I loosely refer to as my 'free time' which basically means the occasional weekend/Sunday, and that is also weather dependant. I therefore anticipate that it will take most of the summer months.


These images are the tree after crown removal, followed by a couple taken after a couple of sessions at the top of a scaffold tower which needs removing at the end of each session. I'll keep you updated as I progress with it. :)







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