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  • Kveldssanger

    Wood pastures and society – changing times and changing desires

    By Kveldssanger

    Man has always had a direct link to the landscape, though that link, whilst it is always there, may not be in the form that it once was. Keeping with the wood pasture theme, which I am really enjoying learning about through books and journal articles, I thought we’d look at how the manner in which we approach the ecosystem has changed over the centuries (quite briefly). Of course, what is written below doesn’t stop just at wood pasture – it has cross-over to other ecosystems, where the reasons for interaction with the landscape have altered through space and, more pertinently, time. Historically, wood pastures were managed for economic purposes. The grazing of animals on grasslands containing trees (and the feeding of the livestock with cuttings from pollarded trees, and a tree’s fruit crop), such as cattle and pigs, was for the direct benefit of communities, who relied upon the produce of the livestock (milk, meat, and so on) in order to make a living, and to generally therefore survive. Of course, the wood pastures needed to be conserved, so that they did not disappear, due to over-grazing. In this sense, they were actively conserved (by replanting dying and dead trees, and limiting grazing intensity), though largely because, without actively conserving them, the livelihood of many tens of thousands of people would be challenged. A by-product of this conservation of wood pastures, for the benefits created from grazing livestock, was that the sites were very rich in biodiversity – birds, fungi, insects, and plants, for example. The complex mosaic of niches within the wood pasture, ranging from open and disturbed soils through to the (perhaps sizeable) groves surrounded by the mantle and fringe vegetation, meant that a large number of organisms could viably frequent the site. However, for all of the biodiversity present as a result of the careful management and conservation of wood pastures throughout history, biodiversity was not the reason for management – until recently. The shift, in Europe, probably begun when wood pasture became disliked (for hope of a better word), during the 19th-20th century (varies depending upon the country). Foresters wanted to maximise output from the trees (coppice – sometimes with standards), and farmers wanted to maximise agricultural output. Therefore, the two practices, initially married, were divorced from one another (somtimes farmers were forced to stop grazing their livestock in wood pasture!). Wood pastures were thus either cleared of trees entirely, or alowed to regenerate into forest. With this came a decline in the richness of biodiversity and, eventually, this loss of biodiversity caused a rather evident of panic amongst conservationists. Ironically, therefore, the rationale behind creating and maintaining wood pasture became largely ecologically-driven, in place of economically-driven (though, particularly in Spain and Romania, wood pastures remain, are these are generally economically viable). Regardless of reason however, the status of wood pastures essentially went full-circle. A fantastic wood pasture in Estonia. Source: Ideas for Sustainability. Of course, this new found love for wood pastures does not necessarily mean that they can ever exist in the manner in which they did before. First and foremost, wood pastures are extensively grazed, and thus, for operations to be self-supporting financially, they must cover large expanses of land (unless the wood pasture is maintained for subsistence purposes, or grants are provided as a means of financial support). As farmers in Europe are generally in ‘the game’ for profit (they must make a living), managing livestock in wood pastures is probably not going to be all too popular, as it’d probably signal a marked drop in profits and / or a marked increase in labour input (at least, initially). Scope does exist to harvest edible mycorrhizal mushrooms from the wood pasture, such as truffles, though this is a specialised pursuit that is far from the current farming status quo of Europe. Furthermore, European culture has changed. Gone are the days of communities being self-sufficient, and instead many Europeans now work a job (that they may even hate) and buy their food from the supermarket (or even order it online). Therefore, is there even the desire to re-introduce wood pastures, for anything other than ecological reasons, or to supply the market with a niche animal product (such as Iberian ham from the black Iberian pig, in the holm oak dehesas of Spain). With this change in culture there has also been a change in learning priorities, and unfortunately many today seem to be fixated with knowing pointless facts about sports teams and celebrities. Functional and practical knowledge is largely gone. As a consequence, the management of wood pastures will be left to an expert few, where knowledge has either been gained academically, or via being passed-down through the generations (usually limited to rural areas where grazing still takes place). However, as more people now live in cities than in rural areas, and this trend will likely continue as rural areas are swallowed up by urban sprawl, or people move into cities for economic reasons, this tradition of passing practical knowledge on and keeping up the family tradition of extensive livestock grazing within wood pasture may very well become ever more the stuff of legend. The black Iberian pig grazing amongst a landscape of holm oak, in a Spanish dehesa. Source: Andrew Petcher. Society is simply in a different place than it once was. For this reason, the conservation of wood pasture is to be far from mainstream. People are certainly aware of nature (of which wood pastures feature), though more and more awareness comes from watching on the television and less from direct experience, and with this comes a discord. There is less emotional and cultural attachment to nature, and as a result, less of an impetus to associate with nature. Why help with the recreation of wood pasture when you can watch about its conservation on television, utter some lamentations, and then switch the channel and soon relegate it to a mere memory? That’s even assuming people watch such programs, in large numbers, in the first place. This probably turned out far more dystopian than I ever intended for it to come out as, though hopefully this illustrates how social changes have led to landscape management changes, with specific focus upon wood pastures in Europe. This is obviously applicable to other landscape types as well, of course. The principle generally carries across. Source (of inspiration): Hartel, T. & Plieninger, T. (2014) The social and ecological dimensions of wood-pastures. In Hartel, T. & Plieninger, T. (eds.) European wood-pastures in transition: A social-ecological approach. UK: Earthscan.
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Help please!

I am in desperate need of wood chippings for the allotment we share.  It is about a mile from Newcastle on Tyne city  centre.  A couple of years ago wood chippings were offered ( by the council I think) so we got rid of the grass paths to make it easier to maintain what with old age and arthritis becoming a problem.  However , since the first delivery we have only had one very small amount of chippings delivered and now all we have is a mess which looks awful.  Can anyone help us, either free or by a small fee to make our allotment worth looking at again?  We could pick up if needed within a reasonable area but only have a small car so patience would be required!  Any help greatly appreciated.

Ellen Wilson

Ellen Wilson

 

How's the 500i working out for you

So after all the hype, how are people getting on with the 500i (if you've gone and got one)?   I've had min for a week now and I am super impressed and could easily throw it around all day without fatigue with some brilliant power.  I would say that whilst people have compared it to the 661, it's not as powerful and for me won't replace it but instead compliment it.

GazN

GazN

 

dead sycamore

Hello My first post to the world of tree people and tree artists all and I would like your advice please.   I trimmed the sycamore in the photo about June last year just before the drought and it reacted very poorly. Specifically I removed any  dead branches of which there weren't that many of any size. There was a hefty branch that had broken off and I merely removed it without a live cut. I don't think I took off more than about 10-15% in volume. It seemed to react poorly - leaves started shedding except for one smallish area that retained leaves. The photo is taken this year - there is the start of some leaf growth at the top left in that small area that did well. I am curious because all the sycamores around - I am in London, seem to be in leaf. The squirrels I believe caused the damage which led to the  previous branch death. Looking at the tree now I can see maybe half-a-dozen branches stripped bare by the squirrels.   So, what's the prognosis? Is the tree just slow to come into leaf? Could last year's trim have been the death knoll? Can trees have some really bad years of semi-dormancy before springing back? Can squirrel activity be as bad as to kill a tree?   Many thanks Dom  

bigbaddom

bigbaddom

 

Work Wanted

I’m looking for some work for the week commencing 13th May!! I have 8 years climbing experience and all relevant qualifications. I’m based in Derbyshire so any work working the area would be great.
 

Looking for a Load of Cord length Firewood, Wareham, Dorset

My regular supplier has retired so I'm looking for a supplier who can deliver trailer loads of cord length logs at a reasonable price.  I am happy to take green hard wood because I have space to store it while it seasons but I would expect to pay less for this.  I can take about 1 or 2 loads (like the one in the pictures below) at a time. I would prefer hardwood (and a season or 2 since felling if available) but will also consider softwood if the price is right.  If you are going to charge per ton, there are weigh bridges nearby we can use while we get to know each other. I would prefer to agree a price per load, once I have seen your trailer loaded (text me a picture). The delivery address is in Wareham, Dorset so please contact me if you can supply me and let me know what you would charge me for a load like the one in the pictures below I look forward to hearing form you Many thanks Anthony 079000 84277  

Woodburner2

Woodburner2

Come and work with us in New Zealand

If you like the outdoors, climbing hunting fishing good beaches , and are sick of the rat race and that Brexit deal then Gisborne on the East Coast of New Zealands North Island is for you.

We are a family owned company , with council contracts, utility, roading and private work. Our plant includes, diggers, six wheelers & specialised equipment .

Clean full drivers licence required 
Clean company, no drugs .

The work is challenging & varied, and no traffic jams !

We are an accredited company with Immigration NZ, which means we can help towards residents visas, for the right candidate

Applicants for this position should have NZ residency or a valid NZ work visa, we can point you in the right direction on this.   Email - paul@rtsl.co.nz with cv and any questions 

New Dolmar 7910 Chainsaw

Just loving the new Dolmar 80cc 7910 chainsaw.... Having just done my CS32 qualifications the chainsaw was awesome... It chewed through the tree trunks like it was going out of fashion... It was a bit heavy when throwing it about for snedding and a 60cc Dolmar 6100 might be better for doing that... But I guess that I will have to just get used to it and toughen up..😂

Can't wait to get on the next courses... Windblown & Uprooted.... And Emergancy Tree Works

Jamie Jones

Jamie Jones

 

Jamie's Garden Services Introduction

This is a quick intro on Jamie's Garden Services   Jamie’s Garden Services operates in the Powys, Mid Wales area and is local to the towns of Llandrindod Wells, Builth Wells, Newbridge on Wye & Rhayader. (Although work is undertaken further away from these local towns to a Radius of 30x miles). I undertake a mixture of basic garden maintenance tasks or installation projects, Regular Maintenance Contract Work for Private Customers, Commercial Businesses and Local Authorities.

Services offered range from:
Commercial Lawn Cutting of large grassed areas
Domestic Lawn
Cutting Tall Grass Clearances
Hedge Cutting & Height Reduction
Wood Chipping (Upto 3-4”)
Weed and Feed Treatments
Legally Licenced to Spray for Weed and Moss Control
Turfing
Patio
Cleaning and Pressure Washing
Patio Repointing
Fence Installations
Fence Protector Spraying
Decking Installations
Shed Installations
Concrete bases for sheds
Repairs & Re-Felting Sheds
Garden Clean Up and Clearances
Tree Felling (Within CS30-CS31-CS32)
(Will soon be adding Windblown & Uprooted and Emergancy Tree Works)
Tree Pruning (Within a certain height) Stump Grinding
Laying Stone Dressings
Odd Jobs & General Property Maintenance
Painting

Licensed to Remove, Transport and Dispose of Waste
Fully Insured PA1 & PA2 Qualified to Spay Herbicides etc
(Soon to be adding spraying by Water Course and Injection Applications)

If you are a Business owner with a requirement for regular grass and periodic hedge cutting along with other general maintenance tasks to maintain your businesses image, I can offer a reliable service tailored to meet your needs. I am currently looking to take on fresh contracts for the following commercial customers: Hotels, Bed & Breakfasts, Commercial Business Premises, Industrial Estates, Holiday Lets, Caravan & Mobile Home Parks, Landlords, Estate Agents, Property Management Companies.

Please Contact Jamie’s Garden Services for a free, no obligation estimate on 07976 400043

https://www.facebook.com/jamiesgardenservices/  

Jamie Jones

Jamie Jones

 

larch timber

anybody know where i can buy larch logs for milling i am based in south wales can only take approx 5 ton short of space

cgb

cgb

Monkey Puzzle Timber

Hi, I'm considering felling a 40' (ish) Monkey Puzzle in Leicester, I'm going to chip all of the branches, however have heard that the trunk timber is useful to some. I can either drop it in small sections, or in larger chunks. Whomever collects will need a Hiab crane or similar if I'm dropping it in big bits, seems it will be very heavy!   Anybody interested  in this?    Jon

JonMeltonMowbray

JonMeltonMowbray

 

075

Also...would this saw be good with an 48" Alaskan Mill...??...Or do you think it would be too small...and go with the 088...??

Bandito Billy

Bandito Billy

 

Stihl 075

Now i know many have posted on the 075..truth is i am not interested in anything other than a great saw for milling...with a Alaskan mill...i have found what seems to be a 075 in excellent condition for 700$..and i'm still sketchy...being this sight has the absolute most up to date professionals and users of these saws...i would very much appreciate any personal experience and or opinions on whether or not to buy a old used supposedly excellent shape...saw...is it worth the risk...??

Bandito Billy

Bandito Billy

 

Autumn: Are We Ready? 

Sunday 28th October marks the official end of British Summertime, although we are already experiencing a drop in temperatures compared to July and August. The Forestry Commission recently announced that the result of dry soils left by the long, hot summer coupled with late summer rain, we are in an early autumn period.   This year’s APF event saw the Forestry Commission celebrating 100 years of the Forestry Act, providing advice and support to the sector and commenting on latest activity. With forestry workers 6 times more likely to be killed at work than a construction worker, knowledge sharing and education remains a critical part of the work required for future development. With the HSE citing growing concerns on the level of competence and high expectations of newly trained/qualified operators, this has never been more important.     In this industry, with the nature of the job including working at height and the risk of falling objects, working with chainsaws and other equipment, careless oversights could quickly turn into serious incidents. The role of technology has increased, as has the need for tree maintenance. Workers can feel instantly reassured by this, possibly too reassured. A reliance on technology could result in arborists and forestry workers becoming less alert to potential issues.    We all know that PPE serves as an essential part of helping to protect those in the forestry industry at work, however, a safety conscious attitude and frame of mind at work is equally as important. It is not enough for workers to rely on PPE, believing that they are 100% safe when they have their PPE is prepped and ready to go. Health and safety needs to be a forefront of the entire workforce’s mind, helping to reduce the amount of carelessness and distraction at work. Put simply, even with PPE and advanced technology employers and site operation managers need to reiterate to workers that this does not render them unexposed to potential incidents. Accidents can still happen and it is critical that workers have a good understanding of this.   1,2,3 – PPE  The purchase of PPE is only the first step in the equipment’s journey.  It must be regularly maintained and replaced, whilst continually ensuring it is most suitable for the job being completed at the time.     Successful management of health and safety and the role of PPE requires co-ordination of activities and communication of information, and must start from the top down. Leading by example will not only resonate and encourage workers on the ground to follow suit, it will go a long way in fundamentally improving health and safety performance across the industry for both newly trained and more casual users.     PPE is not a guarantee of safety, and the role of the individual remains crucial.  Stay aware and alert. Appreciate the equipment with the knowledge that you also play a significant role in ensuring you do not get hurt at work.    For more information on HAIX’s range of forestry boots visit www.haix.co.uk, or to find your nearest dealer contact Workware www.workware.co.uk 

HAIX Footwear UK

HAIX Footwear UK

 

Biomass Chipper

Hi All new to all this - first post so not quite how it works. I have small tree surgery business in Aberdeen with 6 employees. I have decided to get a crane fed chipper with a view to produce woodchips for local biomass and get rid of our waste. Thinking about the Heizohack 8-400. Looking for advice on whether this Is the right machine for me or any other experience/advise. thanks   

chippy10

chippy10

 

Echo CS3600

Hi, Anyone know where I can get a new/used front handle for my Echo CS3600.  I am UK based. Its a great old saw and I really dont want to bin it. Thanks Steve

SteveH500

SteveH500

Guide to classifications of chainsaw protective wear

Chainsaws are extremely dangerous power tools and it’s important for operators to use the right safety gear, otherwise, accidents with chainsaws can result in major injury or death.   It then falls on the employer's responsibility to provide chainsaw operators with appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and clothing. Choosing the right PPE, however, entails knowing the regulations behind it and the designs that would fit the job at hand.   EU Classification System For Chainsaw Protective Clothing Since regular fabric for everyday clothing will not provide any protection to operators, the EU created the EN381 series of standards. It covers the testing and requirements needed for each part of an operator’s gear, particularly for leg protection, boots, gloves, and for upper parts of the body (detailed in each section below).   The regulation also provides numerical classifications that rate the resistance of the clothing relative to the chain speed of the machine:   Class 0 -- 16 metres per second (36 mph) (3,150 feet per minute) Class 1 -- 20 metres per second (45 mph) (3,937 feet per minute) Class 2 -- 24 metres per second (54 mph) (4,724 feet per minute) Class 3 -- 28 metres per second (63 mph) (5,512 feet per minute)   For instance, if a piece of clothing can resist a chainsaw moving at a speed of 20 m/s, then it’s classified as Class 1.   Do note that no protective equipment can guarantee 100% safety against accidents by chainsaw use, but it does decrease the probability of injury or at the very least, help minimise the harm caused. Trousers Leg protection is covered under the EN 381-5. The lowest allowable level for chainsaw trousers is Class 1 (can resist cutting up to 20 m/s).   Trousers that are compliant with EU comes in two standards forms:   Type A – Covers the front of the legs and is intended for trained forestry workers or professional lumberjacks. It also provides arborists (who work on the ground) comfort and ease of movement, especially for heavy tasks. Type C – All-around protection for the legs. Type C trousers are generally used either by trainees, who are at higher risk due to inexperience or by climbers and tree surgeons, as they cut from a variety of positions. Due to the nature and extent of the protection, these can be very hot for climbers to wear in warm weather, so the onus is on the employer to assess the risk of heat stress versus the risk of lesser-protection type A trousers and select the type of trouser accordingly.   Jackets Upper body protection, including jackets, are regulated under EN 381-11.   Unlike trousers, chainsaw jackets only have one design. Fronts and backsides of jackets should have protective inlays along the arms, chest, and shoulders. On the front side, the inlay should cover 80% of the surface, while the non-protected surface of the sleeve ends should not be more than 70 mm.   Although jackets protect the arms and the torso, know that these are also highly insulting, which could cause heat stroke. As such, it’s best used when working on servicing platforms, chainsaw use above chest height, or other dangerous working conditions. Helmets Safety helmets are regulated under EN 397 (the more basic standard) or EN12492 (a more extensive standard which also tests for side, front and back impact, and specifies a 4 point chinstrap). Arborists who work at height using a rope and a harness should be equipped with a (‘mountaineering style’) helmet to EN12492 .   It’s recommended to replace chainsaw helmets every three to five years, as sun exposure can cause the plastic to weaken. In the event of an impact, a helmet should be put out of service immediately and replaced. Gloves Protective gloves fall under EN 381-7.   The type of gloves needed will depend on the task and the risks involved. Look at any presence of thorny material or cold/wet conditions. Gloves should be flexible and allow users adequate grip and control.   Boots Chainsaw boots need to conform to regulations of EN 381-3, as well as EN ISO 20345:2004. Protective gaiters, if needed, should fall under EN 381-9. All chainsaw boots have a steel toe cap. Some boots also have a midsole in addition, for protection from penetration underfoot. Users should be aware that chainsaw boots do not have chainsaw protection all around the boot and therefore cannot prevent injury - they can only help reduce the risks.   Other factors vary from brand to brand, such as grip, comfort, waterproofness and flexibility - and a boot should be chosen based on suitability to the user and the environment.   Ear Protection Hearing protection is regulated under EN 352-1.   The right ear muff protects operators from the damage of excessive environmental noise (more than 85 decibels) like permanent hearing loss. Chainsaw helmets will have the option to attach ear defenders, which should always be worn when using a chainsaw or chipper or other noisy machinery.   Many arborists prefer ‘chipper muffs’ (muffs with a rating of SNR31 or higher). Eye Protection For eye protection, mesh visors fall under EN 1731 while safety glasses fall under EN 166.   Mesh visors guard against wood chips that often fly at high speeds. They also allow for ventilation and eliminate the risk of fogging. Safety glasses, on the other hand, provide unobstructed vision and more impact resistance. Again, depending on your model of helmet you will likely be able to attach either a mesh visor or glasses (or both) to the helmet. Stay Safe Part of running a business that’s safe for employees is mitigating any risk in the workplace. To prevent any accidents, you need to look at any possible causes of harm, ensure that chainsaw operators are wearing the right gear, and that they follow all the best chainsaw practices.

LandmarkTrading

LandmarkTrading

A Buyer's Guide to Cobra Bracing

Arborists often need to provide structural support for trees through the use of either fibre ropes or steel cables to secure the stability of the major elements of the tree. There are several different approaches to bracing a tree but the Cobra System is one of the most popular and best. It is easy to install, will cater to many different types of defects and instabilities, does not require any specialist tools or training, and is completely non-invasive to the tree. The Basics of Tree Bracing Some trees can end up growing at a rate and in a direction that makes them unstable. Part of the tree or even the whole structure may be in danger of collapse. In other instances, damage can come about through storms, vandalism or interference from other elements. If a tree is unstable or damaged, this clearly presents a danger to the public and to other structures around the tree. Trees that have multiple trunks and trees with open canopies are most likely to be unstable. Supporting a tree with cables and/or rods is referred to as tree bracing. In general, tree bracing is used to: Prevent failure - reduce the chance of a healthy but weak tree structure becoming unstable Restore damage - to extend the life of a tree Mitigate a hazard - reduce the risk of damage to human health and life or property It must be remembered that bracing is not an exact science and does not offer a guarantee of maintaining the tree structure, or indeed the life of the tree. When you are deciding whether to brace or not, you will need to weigh up the likelihood of it being successful, the risks of carrying it out, the aesthetics of the final result and conservation issues. A skilled and experienced arborist is best placed to make that assessment. All about the Cobra Bracing System The Cobra Bracing System has been scientifically developed to give the best support, shock absorbance and flexibility. Some of the specific benefits are: It’s lightweight - the Cobra rope is a monofilament polypropylene hollow cable which is much lighter than the steel cable alternative, making it strong and comfortable to handle. It’s aesthetically superior - there are no bracing rods which cause damage and can look unsightly. Once installed, Cobra systems are often very difficult to pick out at ground level, leaving the tree’s natural beauty uninhibited It can be used for several purposes - it is suitable for dynamic bracing (for sudden stresses) and load bracing. It absorbs shock - it significantly reduces impact forces It maintains strength - it loses only 2 percent of its strength per year which means that it will generally be 12 years before it will need to be replaced. It protects the tree - the system does not require rods to be placed inside the tree and uses hollow cables made out of monofilament polypropylene together with a quick splice instead. The expanding bands and anti-abrasion cover also help to minimise any friction damage between the cables and the bark.   System components Cobra Bracing comprises: Hollow cables - made from woven monofilament polypropylene in 4 and 8-tonne strengths Expansion inserts - used to flatten the contact area and prevent girdling. Anti-abrasion hose - needed to prevent rope damage by making sure that the cable does not slide around the connection point. End caps - which are colour coded to quickly identify the year that the bracing was erected. Shock Absorbers - To reduce impact forces and hence cut down on damage. Cobra bracing methods There are three main types of bracing: Dynamic braking / cabling: For preventing breakage caused by oscillation-induced overstretching, install Cobra with a shock absorber. That way, the oscillations of the crown are not impeded, yet load peaks from strong gusts are softly dampened. Static braking / cabling: If damage is already present (i.e. formation of cracks), we recommend installing a Cobra 4 t or 8 t without a shock absorber. By immobilizing the critical spot, this type of cabling system prevents enlargement of the crack and helps prevent the branch from breaking off. Load support cabling: If, for reasons of traffic or pedestrian safety, a broken branch needs to be prevented from falling to the ground, install a static load/support cabling Cobra system without a shock absorber.  Bracing should be installed as vertically as possible so that, should the branch break, it will hang in the rope. The only acceleration will be from the rope extension hence there will be little or no shock loading. The rope and anchor point should be sufficiently strong for the weight of the branch.   Selecting the right Cobra system There are three main system variants for you to choose from depending on the load that you need to support and the diameters of the branches involved - 2 tonne, 4 tonne or 8 tonne.  The chart below gives guiding information on selecting the correct system for your job. For further details please refer here.     Cobra 2T Dynamic breaking/cabling for a stem/branch base up to 30cm (12 inches). Cobra 4T Dynamic breaking/cabling for a stem/branch base of 40-60cm (16 - 24inches). 
Static cabling and load/support cabling up to a stem/branch base of 40cm (16 inches). Cobra 8T Dynamic breaking/cabling for a stem/branch base of 60-80cm (24-32 inches). 
Static cabling and load/support cabling for a stem/branch base of 40-60cm (16-24 inches), with a double installation for a stem/branch base of 
60-80 cm (24-32 inches).    To provide optimum efficiency, it is recommended that Cobra bracing should be installed at two-thirds the height of the tree. When used as load/support cabling, the rope should be installed as vertically as possible.

LandmarkTrading

LandmarkTrading

Tree Surveys and Tree Tags

All arborists will invariably carry out tree surveys from time to time. They can be conducted on land owned by public sector bodies or on private estates. They ensure that the individual or organisation managing the land has the correct information that they need to make decisions regarding how they will manage the tree stock.   There is official guidance, namely British Standard BS5837, which sets out how decisions should be made when managing trees. A tree survey is needed before any decisions can be taken. Information Revealed by a Tree Survey A properly conducted tree survey will yield essential information about the trees in the location in question. Some of the most important information includes:   The tree species, which is recorded in scientific nomenclature. The age of the tree. The physical dimensions of the tree including the trunk diameter at a recorded height and the overall height of the tree. This is identified using measuring instruments. The health and predicted life expectancy. Recommendations for managing the tree in the future, this could include restorative work or even removal. Compliance with any legislation that applies to the tree such as the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. Predicted impact of any proposed development on trees in the locality. Providing information for computer generated modelling. Pinpointing trees that add value to a development, those that are protected by law and those that do not enhance the landscape and can be safely removed. Identifying trees that present a hazard due to their physical condition.   Carrying out a Tree Survey A tree survey is often a significant undertaking and may involve several arborists and specialist equipment. Before you start, it is essential to protect your own safety and that of your employees by identifying any hazardous trees. A preliminary scoping survey is carried out to identify ‘Target Zones’. Ideally, each tree is assessed from all sides but there are some circumstances in which this is not safe. A river bank would be a typical example. For each tree, the following is usually recorded in a standardised way using a pre-designed form that is stored on paper or electronically. Surveyed trees are usually identified with tree tags which are physically attached to the tree. Information on a typical survey form includes:   Species Position - usually expressed as map coordinates supplemented by a description Notes on distinctive attributes Approximation of age - this could be designated as categorical variables such as ‘newly planted’ ranging to ‘over-mature’ Gaps in the crown, leaf colour, presence of dead wood and broken branches Presence of cracks or splits in branches Presence of fungus or splits and cracks in the trunk Presence of ivy Presence of leaning and a record of what it is leaning towards Signs of decay within the main trunk and base Obvious root damage Obvious cracks, uplifting around the tree   Classifying Tree Condition Using the survey information, the overall physical condition of the tree can be classed. They are generally described as:   Good - a tree that has a full crown and no signs of decay or damage; a long-life expectancy is predicted Fair - a tree that is mainly healthy but has some minor defects and/or thinning of the crown Poor - a tree that has some major defects or that lacks vigour; the life expectancy is short Dangerous - a tree that should be urgently removed because it presents a hazard Dead - a tree that has died and needs to be removed   Using the survey data, works on the trees can be prioritised and sensible recommendations for the management of the tree stock can be made.

LandmarkTrading

LandmarkTrading

About

Arbtalk.co.uk is a hub for the arboriculture industry in the UK.  
If you're just starting out and you need business, equipment, tech or training support you're in the right place.  If you've done it, made it, got a van load of oily t-shirts and have decided to give something back by sharing your knowledge or wisdom,  then you're welcome too.
If you would like to contribute to making this industry more effective and safe then welcome.
Just like a living tree, it'll always be a work in progress.
Please have a look around, sign up, share and contribute the best you have.

See you inside.

The Arbtalk Team

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